Tuesday, May 18, 2010

Book summary: The Power of Less

The The Fine Art of Limiting Yourself to the Essential...in Business and in Life by Leo Babauta

The Power of Less has some powerful, counter-intuitive ideas that could lead to a significant change in your productivity, and a reasonable volume of fluff that will be helpful to very few.

For examples of fluff, you could review the "20 ideas to help you maintain your motivation." A few examples are "think of the benefits" and "get excited again." Some of the author's own simplicity principles could have been profitably applied to chapters such as this one.

The powerful ideas, however, justify the purchase price and will yield significant productivity improvements if you can implement them. For example, Babauta suggests that you pick three projects that are most important to you, and complete all three before you work on any other project. This may sound extreme, but Babauta's own personal example suggests the power in the approach. (He has lost weight, quit smoking, become a world-famous blogger, etc, etc, following his own principles.)

What follows is a summary of the book with most of the key points. This ought to help you decide if the book is worth your time:

The Power of Less Principles:
1. Set limitations
2. Choose the essential
3. Simplify
4. Focus
5. Create habits
6. Start small
Simplicity can be powerful
Achieve goals one at a time

Part 1: The Principles

Chapter 1: Why less is powerful
Principle 1: By setting limitations, we must choose the essential. So in everything you do, learn to set limitations.
Principle 2: By choosing the essential, we create great impact with minimal resources. Always choose the essential to maximize your time and energy.
How to choose the tasks that have the most impact? Two options:
1. Examine your task list and ask yourself the following questions:
a. Will this have an impact that will last beyond this week or this year?
b. How will this change my career, my life?
c. How will this further a long term goal of mine?
2. Start with your goals: plan tasks each day that will lead to accomplishing the goals.
What are the things one can apply limits to? Any aspect of your life. E.g.,
The number of possessions that I have
The information that I receive
The number of emails I respond to per day
The number of times I check email per day

Chapter 2: The art of Setting Limits
What to set limits on:
Email, daily tasks, number of projects, number of blogs you subscribe to, amount of time spent reading on the Internet
How to set limits:
1. Analyze current usage levels, pick a lower level limit
2. Test it for a week
3. If it doesn't work, adjust and test again
4. Continue to adjust and then make it a habit

Chapter 3: Choosing the Essential, and Simplifying
Questions to help determine what is essential
* What are your values?
* What are your goals?
* What do you love?
* What is important to you?
* What has the biggest impact?
* What has the most long-term impact?
* Needs vs. wants
* Eliminate the non-essential
* Continual editing process
Ways to apply the questions about essentials:
Life commitments
Yearly goals
Work projects and tasks
Regular review
Principle 3 - Simplifying - Eliminating the Nonessential.
Learn to say "No."

Chapter 4 - Simple focus
Principle 4: Focus is your most important tool in becoming more effective
How to use focus to improve your life
Focus on a goal
Focus on now
Focus on the task at hand. Single-tasking is more efficient than multi-tasking because you don't waste time switching gears.
Focus on the positive
How to single-task:
1. First thing in the morning, focus on the Most Important Task
2. Turn off all other distractions while working on the Most Important Task
3. If tempted to check email, pause, breathe deeply, and resist the urge
4. If other things come in, make a note of them, and keep focusing
5. Process email and inbox at regular intervals
6. Take breaks, stretch, move, get outside
How to focus on the present:
1. When you eat, just eat. Experience the food, the taste. Really experience it.
2. Be aware.
3. Be gentle. Don't beat yourself up if you start thinking about past or future.
4. Exercise. Focus on your body, breathing, etc while exercising, not the MP3 player.
5. Daily routines. When you walk, focus on walking.
6. Put up reminders to focus on the present
7. There is no failure
8. Keep practicing

Chapter 5 - Create New Habits, and the Power of Less Challenge
Principle 5 - Create new habits to make long-lasting improvements
1. Select one habit for the challenge
2. Write down your plan
3. Post your goal publicly
4. Report on progress daily
5. Celebrate your new habit
Why it works
* Commitment
* Accountability
* Encouragement
* Inspiration
The Rules
* Do only one habit at a time
* Choose an easy goal
* Choose something measurable
* Be consistent
* Report daily
* Keep a positive attitude
12 Key Habits to Start with
1. Set your 3 Most Important Tasks each morning
2. Single task
3. Process your in-box to empty
4. Check email just twice a day
5. Exercise five to ten minutes a day
6. Work while disconnected, with no distractions
7. Follow a morning routine
8. Eat more fruits and veggies every day
9. Keep your desk decluttered
10. Say no to commitments and requests that aren't on your Short List
11. Declutter your house for fifteen minutes every day
12. Stick to a five-sentence limit for emails

Chapter 6 - Start Small
Principle 6 - Start new habits in small increments to ensure success
Why starting small works
It narrows your focus
It keeps your energy and enthusiasm going for longer
It's easier to handle
You ensure success
Gradual change is longer-lasting
How to apply starting small
Exercise - start with 5-10 minutes per day
Waking early - start by waking 15 minutes earlier
Productivity - Start by focusing on task at hand for 15 minutes at a time
Email effectiveness - start by reducing the frequency of checking email to fewer times per day but not all the way to 2 or 3 times per day
Healthy eating - start with just one change to the diet
Decluttering - start with just one drawer
Part Two - In Practice

Chapter 7 - Simple Goals and Projects
The "One Goal System" - focus on one goal at a time
1. Choose a goal
2. Break it down to a sub-goal
3. Weekly goal
4. Daily action
The Simple Projects List
Make a list of all the projects going on in your life. Anything that takes a day or more to complete.
Now choose just three projects from the list. This list of three is the Simple Projects List. Everything else is on hold until you complete the three projects that you've chosen. You don't get to work on other projects until all three projects are completed. Then you add three new projects to the Simple Projects List.
Tips to focus on completion:
* Have an outcome in mind - what will the project look like when you are done?
* Move from projects to tasks - list all the tasks required to achieve the outcome
* Each day, choose a task to move you toward completion
* Reassess your progress

Chapter 8 - Simple Tasks
Choose only three Most Important Tasks that will be the focus of your day. No matter what else, make sure you get the three MITs done each day. At least one of the MITs should be related to your goals.
Set these MITs the first thing in the morning. Focus on accomplishing these above everything else. Do them early in the day, before distractions. Break things down into small tasks.

Chapter 9 - Simple Time Management.
Batch processing - group together similar tasks

Chapter 10 - Simple E-mail
Limit the number of inboxes - list all the ways you receive information, evaluate each to see if it gives you value, and find ways to combine or eliminate in-boxes
Limit your time with email: Limit the number of times per day you check email; don't check email first thing in the morning, turn off email notifications
Reduce your incoming stream: Create filters to send notifications directly to a folder outside the Inbox; stop the flow of joke emails
Process to empty: Temporary folder of to be filed; have an external to-do system; process quickly; Delete key; Process to done; write less

Chapter 11 - Simple Internet
Awareness - track your usage:
Consciousness: Make a Plan
Set limits and have a purpose to your usage
Focus: Learning to work while disconnected - disconnect from the Internet when you want to focus and get something done.
Set a timer and focus on the task at hand.
When you think of something you need to do on the Internet, write it down and do it later.
Discipline: How to stay away from distractions

Chapter 12 - Simple Filing
1. Reduce before organizaing
2. Simple filing - alphabetical; manila folders,
3. File immediately
4. Have materials on hand
5. Reduce your needs over time
a. Store reference material on line
b. Reduce incoming paper
c. Stop printing stuff
Home paperwork tips
1. Create one mail center in your home for dealing with your mail and incoming paperwork
2. Home in-box - all incoming papers
3. Pay bills immediately
4. Enter stuff into your to-do lists or calendar
5. File immediately

Chapter 13 - Simple Commitments
Take inventory of commitments: work, side work (freelance assignments), family, kids, civic, religious, hobbies, home, online
Make a short list: Does this give my life value? How would it affect my life if I dropped out? Cut down your list to 4 or 5 things
Begin eliminating the nonessential
1. Start with something small
2. Call or email to send your regrets
3. Eliminate the commitment from your appointment
4. Repeat
Learn to say no
Making the time for what we love
1. Make a list of what you truly love to do
2. Eliminate as much of the other stuff from your life as possible
3. Schedule free time so that you're doing the things on your short list
Tips for simplifying your personal life
* What's important?
* Examine your commitments
* Do less during your days
* Leave space between tasks and appointments
* Eliminate as much as possible from your to-do list
* Slow down and enjoy every task
* Single-task
* Eliminate stress
* Create time for solitude
* Do nothing
* Sprinkle simple pleasures throughout your day
* Practice being present
* Free up time

Chapter 14 - Simple Daily Routine
Helps prepare for your day, time to set goals, get exercise, do something enjoyable
Choose 4-6 activities for a morning routine, e.g.
Have coffee, watch the sunrise, exercise, shower, do yoga, meditate, write, read, review goals, write the Most Important Tasks
Evening routine:
Prepare for the next day, unwind, review day, keep house clean, calm yourself, write, exercise
1. Focus on the routines
2. Make them rewarding
3. Log your progress

Chapter 15 - Declutter your work space
Benefits: allows you to focus; provides sense of calm
1. Set aside time
2. Take all the paperwork off your desk and put in a big pile
3. Clear everything off desk except computer, phone
4. Start with pile of papers
Getting down to the essentials
What do you really need to do your job?
Get rid of distracting knickknacks, posters, etc.
Empty entire shelf or drawer at a time
Be ruthless with papers
Keep things decluttered:
1. Keep an in-box for incoming papers
2. Once per day, process the in-box to empty
3. Have a place for each item and type of paper
A simple home: less stressful, more appealing, easier to clean
Thirty-day list: anytime you want to buy something, put it on the list with the date you added it

Chapter 16 - Slow Down
Slow attention:
Pick a simple task to start with
Practice this method throughout the day
Try meditation
Slow working
1. Choose work you love
2. Choose an important task
3. Make sure it's challenging, but not too hard
4. Find your quiet, peak time
5. Clear away distractions, and focus
6. Enjoy yourself
7. Keep practicing
8. Reap the rewards
Slow eating
Take smaller bites, chew each bite longer, enjoy the meal longer.
It takes twenty minutes for our brains to register that we are full.
1. Lose weight
2. Enjoy food
3. Better digestion
4. Less stress
5. Rebel against fast food and fast life
Slow driving
1. Save gas
2. Save lives
3. Save time
4. Save your sanity
5. Simplify your life

Chapter 17 - Simple Health and Fitness
Step 1 - forming the exercise habit: Start light. Just 5-10 minutes per day at first. Schedule workout time. Don't allow yourself to miss a day. Don't give up. Get a partner if you can. Be accountable to others. Keep a strict workout and eating log, and make it public. Let the light shine. Enjoy yourself.
Step 2 - Making gradual healthy diet changes
Eat when you are lightly hungry, not ravenous. Eat light foods. Create meal plans with healthy foods. Eat slowly. Eat until lightly full, not stuffed.
Step 3 - Continuation, short-term goals, and accountability.
Continue to gradually increase exercise, adding variety. Continue to eat healthier. Set short-term goals. Hold yourself accountable - log eating and exercise daily.

Chapter 18 - On Motivation
8 ways to motivate yourself from the beginning:
1. Start small
2. One goal
3. Examine your motivation - know your reasons, write them down
4. Really, really want it - must be something you are passionate about
5. Commit publicly
6. Get excited - visualize what it will be like to be successful
7. Build anticipation
8. Print it out, post it up. Make the goal just a few words long.
Ways to sustain motivation when you're struggling
* Hold yourself back at first
* Just start - get the running shoes on and go outside
* Stay accountable - report back daily
* Replace negative thoughts with positive ones
* Think about the benefits
* Get excited again
* Read about it
* Find like-minded friends
* Read inspiring stories
* Build on your successes
* Just get through the low points
* Get help
* Chart your progress
* Reward yourself often
* Go for mini-goals
* Get a coach or take a class
* Never skip two days in a row
* Use visualization
* Be aware of your urges to quit, and overcome them
* Find pleasure again

Learn to read a P&L

One of my clients is in the process of interviewing candidates for a director-level business process improvement role. He spoke to one candidate who had a history of leading successful projects and asked him, "Are you comfortable reading an income statement?"

The candidate said, "No," and lost the job. At least he was honest.

Anyone who works for a company, or wants to work for one, ought to be able to read an income statement, a balance sheet, and a cash flow statement. You don't need to go to business school to learn this.

If you have never really understood financial statements, or you once were a pro and need a refresher, there are plenty good books out there that you can use to teach yourself. One book that is very readable (and even amusing) is Analysis for Financial Management by Robert Higgins.

Derric is an artist

Derric is an artist. As far as I know, he doesn't paint, or sculpt, or draw with charcoal, but he is an artist as Seth Godin defines the term:

"Artists are people with a genius for finding a new answer, a new connection, or a new way of getting things done." - From Linchpin

Derric is a security guard in a building where I work. He has a genius for making connections with the people that work in the building. Some security guards do the absolute minimum, "ID please?" They wear the required uniform and show up on time, but they leave their best selves at home.

Not Derric. He learns your name, and greets you by name. He doesn't get paid extra for this. He gives you a big smile when you arrive. And he takes action to fix things, even when that isn't his job.

I was having trouble getting entered into the security system at this particular building, so every day I had to take a minute and show my ID and get a temporary pass. Derric took action to fix this. He went to the president of the real estate company that rents me an office, proposed a solution, got approval, and fixed the issue. So now I save a couple minutes a day. This isn't Derric's job, but he does it because he likes to see things run smoothly.

Derric and I had coffee the other day, and he shared some fascinating insight into the work of security guards. Such as, with a bit of overtime, one can earn over $100,000 per year. And there are a dozen or more different certifications that you can study for and get paid extra for having. Certifications related to fire safety, crowd control, maintenance, evacuations, and so on.

Derric is a wealth of information on how much different building management companies pay, what the different courses are, how much extra you can get paid with each different certification, the best strategy on when to jump from one company to another, and so forth. I suggested that he establish himself as an authority on the topic by starting a blog and interviewing building managers. How many good blogs are out there on the intricacies of building security in New York City? Derric could position himself as the expert. Give seminars on how to navigate this world. Teach graduates how to position themselves for a career in security. Do audits of building security. I'm looking forward to following how Derric manages his career.

Tip: Your email signature

This tip sounds like a no-brainer, but I often get work emails that don't have one:

If you want people to be able to get back to you easily, include an email signature in your outgoing messages.

Include in the signature all the ways you want people to be able to contact you. Your desk, fax, mobile phone numbers, your Skype address if you use Skype, and yes, your email address.

Why should you include your email address when your email address is right there in the "sent" line of your emails? Because some people are going to copy and paste your signature into their contacts in Outlook. And if your email is not included, it will take an extra step. Save them the trouble.

Thursday, May 13, 2010

"I'm interested in consulting and was looking for some advice."

I occasionally have folks reach out to me asking for advice about a career in consulting, and I'm happy to answer their questions. In some cases, the inquiry I receive is very specific and shows that the person has already done the research that can be done online. Those are the cases where I can be most helpful.

In other cases, the inquiry is more generic: "I'm interested in consulting and would like to get your advice." I'll make time for a call, but I'm not going to be as helpful if the person hasn't done some research first.

A starting point for this research would include:

+ Vault Guide to the Top 50 Management and Strategy Consulting Firms

+ WetFeet guides on management consulting industry

+ Websites and wikipedia entries of the consulting firms they are interested in

+ Consulting Magazine

A good first step would be to figure out what type of consulting is of interest. Management consulting? Technology consulting? Supply chain management consulting? If you've done the research and you are trying to decide, that's fine. But you don't want to ask, "What are the different types of consulting?" If you aren't the type of person who will research that online first, you probably aren't the type of person who will enjoy consulting.

The same goes for any kind of "informational interview." It isn't helpful to ask questions during an informational interview that could be answered by Wikipedia or the annual report. Do the homework first. And then demonstrate that you've done your homework when you reach out.

Wednesday, May 12, 2010

Marketing Genius

"Fresh College Grad / Need Job / Hire this marketing genius" said the sign of the woman standing in Times Square.

I asked her, "Do you have a website with a portfolio of your work?" "No."

"Do you maintain a blog with your observations on the world of marketing?" "No."

"Do you have a business card?" "No."

"Okay, well, good luck."

As Seth Godin writes, if you don't have something more than a resume, what leads you to believe that you are remarkable?


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Tuesday, May 11, 2010

Read Chris Guillebeau's Guide to World Domination

This online manifesto is free and could change your life.

Subtitle of the manifesto is "How to Live a Remarkable Life in a Conventional World."

Become indispensable and transform your life today

Here is the review of Seth Godin's Linchpin that I just posted on Amazon:

Linchpin is the most personal work by Seth Godin and his most passionate and compelling call to action yet. When you are done you'll want every person in your organization to read this book. Few of the messages here are new, but the combination of ideas and the clarity of the writing makes this book, like Godin himself, indispensable. In short, his message is: The world is changing. Obeying the rules doesn't cut it anymore. To have an extraordinary life, you must be remarkable. And you can start now, in your current job, without waiting for permission.

I'll include here a short synopsis of the book, a list of all his recommended reading, and then a series of quotes that I wanted to re-read myself.

Synopsis by chapter:

The New World of Work: The industrial revolution demanded workers who follow instructions. The world has now changed, and there aren't any more good jobs where you get rewarded well for obeying the rules. What the world now demands is people who are remarkable and make a difference, people who don't need to be told what to do.

Thinking About Your Choice: Everyone can choose to become indispensable. You can start now, in your current job.
Indoctrination: How We Hot Here: School indoctrinates us to obey authority and doesn't have much to do with becoming educated. Draws heavily on John Taylor Gatto.

Becoming the Linchpin: Become an expert in your field. Do emotional labor - be willing to make a connection and be remarkable. You'll need to work without a map. Avoid jobs where there is a standard of perfection, because there is no profit once you start up the asymptote. Instead, find a job where there is no upper limit on performance. Instead of a resume, have a portfolio, a set of recommendations, a blog, a reputation for being remarkable. In skiing, the one who leans the most wins the race. A linchpin leans into the task.

Is It Possible to Do Hard Work in a Cubicle? Defining art - in the sense that has nothing to do with a paintbrush. Art defined as anything that's creative, passionate, and personal; as a personal act of courage, something that produces change in another person.
The Resistance: This chapter draws heavily on The War of Art. Artists ship. Tips on overcoming the resistance. Signs that the lizard brain is at work. Quoting a Bre Pettis blog post on the "cult of done." You ship by not doing things that want to distract you. Take a news vacation. Take an Internet diet. Shenpa - Tibetan for scratching the itch. Avoid checking your email - learn to live with the itch and don't scratch it.

The Powerful Culture of Gifts: Gifts make you indispensable. Give gifts without any expectation of a payback. Gifts signal to the world that you have plenty more to spare. Gifts make a tribe.
There is no map: Prajna: a life without attachment and stress. Don't take it personally - don't try to teach fire a lesson when it burns you. Learn to navigate disruptions and inconveniences in stride. Don't get attached to outcomes. "Lab assistants do what they're told. Scientists figure out what to do next." "Art is an act of navigating without a map."

Making the Choice: Burn your copy of Candyland. Don't teach your children or employees to be map readers and rule followers. "More cowbell." A bigger badge isn't going to help you get things done. Don't wait to be given authority. Make it happen with what you have now. Fill in the following sentence: "I could be more creative if only..."
The Culture of Connection: Give genuine gifts.

The Seven Abilities of the Linchpin:
1) Providing a unique interface between members of the organization
2) Delivering unique creativity
3) managing a situation or organization of great complexity
4) Leading customers
5) Inspiring staff
6) Providing deep domain knowledge
7) Possessing a unique talent
"We can't profitably get more average"

Suggested reading:
On Gifts and Art:
The War of Art by Steven Pressfield
The Gift, by Lewis Hyde
The Gift, by Marcel Mauss
Art is Work, by Milton Glaser
Man on Wire, by Philippe Petit
True and False, by David Mamet

On Sociology and Economics
The Lonely Crowd, by David Riesman, with Nathan Glazer and Reuel Denney
From the American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932, by David Hounshell
The Power Elite, by C. Wright Mills
The American Myth of Success: From Horatio Alger to Norman Vincent Peale, by Richard Weiss
The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling, by Arlie Russell Hochschild
Stone Age Economics, by Marshall Sahlins
Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take it Back, by Douglas Rushkoff
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, by Max Weber
The Communist Manifesto, by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
The Wealth of Nations, by Adam Smith
The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America is Tearing Us Apart, by Bill Bishop
The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life, by Richard Florida
The Trap: Selling Out to Stay Afloat in Winner-Take-All America, by Daniel Brook

On Education
Weapons of Mass Instruction, by John Taylor Gatto
Schooling in Capitalist America, by Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis
Learning to Labor: How Working-Class Kids Get Working-Class Jobs, by Paul Willis

On Programming and Productivity
The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering, by Frederick P. Brooks, Jr
Software Project Survival Guide, by Steve McConnell
Joel on Software, by Joel Spolsky
Zen Habits, by Leo Babauta

On Science, Evolution, and the Brain
Ever Since Darwin: Reflections on Natural History, by Stephen Jay Gould
Honest Signals: How They Shape Our World, by Alex (Sandy) Pentland
Iconoclast: A Neuroscientist Reveals How to Think Differently, by Gregory Berns
How We Decide, by Jonah Lehrer

On Wisdom
Don't Bit the Hook: Finding Freedom from Anger, Resentment, and Other Destructive Emotions, by Pema Chodron
Awakening the Buddha Within: Tibetan Wisdom for the Western World, by Lama Surya Das
Ignore Everybody: And 39 Other Keys to Creativity, by Hugh McLeod
The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable, by Nassim Nicholas Taleb
Peace is Every Step: The Path of Mindfulness in Everyday Life, by Thich Nhat Hanh

On Overcoming Resistance and Getting Creative
Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress-free Productivity, by David Allen
Presentation Zen: Simple Ideas on Presentation Design and Delivery, by Garr Reynolds
A Whack on the Side of the Head: How You Can Be More Creative, by Garr Reynolds


Stop asking what's in it for you and start giving gifts that change people.

The compliant masses don't help so much when you don't know what to do next.

Artists are people with a genius for finding a new answer, a new connection, or a new way of getting things done.

There are no longer any great jobs where someone tells you precisely what to do.

It's easy to buy a cookbook (filled with instructions to follow), but really hard to find a chef book.

The Hierarchy of Value: Lift / Hunt / Grow / Produce / Sell / Connect / Create and invent

The only way to get what you're worth is to stand out, to exert emotional labor, to be seen as indispensable, and to produce interactions that organizations and people care deeply about.

If you want a job where it's okay to follow the rules, don't be surprised if you get a job where following the rules is all you get to do.

Take a risk that you might make someone upset with your initiative, innovation, and insight - it turns out that you'll probably delight them instead.

Would your career advance if you could figure out a way to do an even better job of following your boss's instructions?

We train the factory workers of tomorrow. Our graduates are very good at following instructions. And we teach the power of consumption as an aid for social approval.

It's almost impossible to imagine a school with a sign that said:

"We teach people to take initiative and become remarkable artists, to question the status quo, and to interact with transparency. And our graduates understand that consumption is not the answer to social problems."
Being good at school is a fine skill if you intend to do school forever. For the rest of us, being good at school is a little like being good at Frisbee. It's nice, but it's not relevant unless your career involves homework assignments, looking through textbooks for answers that are already known to your supervisors, complying with instructions and then, in high-pressure settings, regurgitating those facts with limited processing on your part."

What they should teach in school: 1. Solve interesting problems. 2. Lead.

Your job is a platform for generosity, for expression, for art.

If you don't have more than a resume, you've been brainwashed into compliance.

Art is anything that's creative, passionate, and personal.

Art is a personal act of courage, something one human does that creates change in another.

Art is the product of emotional labor. If it's easy and risk-free, it's unlikely that it's art.

Art is any original idea that can be a gift.

The greatest shortage in our society is an instinct to produce.

Artists think along the edges of the box, because that's where things get done.

It's not an accident that successful people read more books.

It's interesting to say it out loud, `I'm doing this because of the resistance.' When you say it out loud, the lizard brain retreats in shame.

Giving a gift makes you indispensable.

`Teamwork' is the word bosses and coaches and teachers use when they actually mean, "Do as I say.'
Gifts not only satisfy our needs as artists, they also signal to the world that we have plenty more to share.

An artist is someone who uses bravery, insight, creativity, and boldness to challenge the status quo.
The difference between "If" and "And"

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